Canine Respiratory Disease

Infections respiratory disease is a troublesome problem in dogs because it is easily transmitted in the air or by direct contact, especially in kennels or among dogs living together. Upper respiratory disease can limit the dog's activity, and progress to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The most common causes of respiratory infection in dogs include canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica bacteria. CAV-2 is closely related to CAV-1, the cause of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH). For this reason, CAV-2 vaccines provide dual protection against both ICH and respiratory disease caused by CAV-2. Infectious thracheobronchitis ("kennel cough" or "canine cough") is a persistent respiratory disease with a harsh, dry cough, often caused by viral infection complicated by Bordetella bronchispeptica.

 

Additional Information About Canine Respiratory Disease

What is Kennel Cough?
Kennel Cough is a broad term covering any infectious or contagious condition of dogs where coughing is one of the major clinical signs. The term tracheobronchitis describes the location of the infection in the “windpipe” or trachea and bronchial tubes. Several viruses and bacteria can cause kennel cough, often at the same time. These include adenovirus type-2 (distinct from the adenovirus type 1 that causes infectious hepatitis), parainfluenza virus, and the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica. Because the infection spreads when dogs are housed together, it is often seen soon after dogs have been in kennels, hence the name “kennel cough”.

What are the clinical signs of kennel cough other than coughing?
Clinical signs may be variable. It is often a mild disease, but the cough may be chronic, lasting for several weeks in some cases. Common clinical signs include a loud cough often describe as a “goose honk”, runny eyes and nose, swollen tonsils, wheezing, lack of appetite and depressed behavior. Most cases of infectious tracheobronchitis have a demonstrable or elicitable cough that occurs when the throat is rubbed or palpated.

What is the treatment for infectious tracheobronchitis?
There is no specific treatment for the viral infections, but many of the more severe signs are due to bacterial involvement, particularly Bordetella bronchiseptica. Antibiotics are useful against this bacterium, although some antibiotic resistance has been reported. Some cases require prolonged treatment, but most infections resolve within one to three weeks. Mild clinical signs may linger even when the bacteria have been eliminated.

How can I prevent my dog contracting Kennel Cough?
Most vaccination programs your veterinarian will recommend contain adenovirus and parainfluenza. Bordetella vaccination is also highly recommended for dogs that are boarded, groomed or interact with other dogs in areas such as dog parks.

How effective are these vaccines?
Immunity, even if the dog has experienced a natural infection, is neither solid nor long-lasting. We cannot expect vaccines to do much better. Since immunity varies with the circumstances, Consult with your veterinarian regarding specific vaccination recommendations for your pet. Which may vary according to specific circumstances. Some kennel facilities require a booster vaccination shortly before boarding and some veterinarians recommend a booster vaccine every six months to ensure maximum protection against this troublesome infection.

How are the Bordetella vaccines administered?
Bordetella vaccination is given either by injection or intra-nasal route. Intra-nasal refers to the liquid vaccine administered as nose drops. This allows local immunity to develop on the mucous membranes of the nose, throat and windpipe where the infectious agents first attack.